Contents

The reliability and cost of any electrical system depends greatly on the quality of the power supplied to and consumed by the system. Poor power quality may result in improper function, overheating, accelerated wear and tear, falsely tripped circuit breakers and, in some cases, hazardous conditions. With the introduction of new electronic technologies over the last several decades, the world has placed new and more complex demands for clean and reliable power.Measuring P...

What Is Power Quality And Why Do I Need A Power Quality Analyzer?

What Is Power Quality And Why Do I Need A  Power Quality Analyzer?The reliability and cost of any electrical system depends greatly on the quality of the power supplied to and consumed by the system. Poor power quality may result in improper function, overheating, accelerated wear and tear, falsely tripped circuit breakers and, in some cases, hazardous conditions. With the introduction of new electronic technologies over the last several decades, the world has placed new and more complex demands for clean and reliable power.Measuring Power Quality typically involves calculating indicators of power demand, power consumption and power cleanliness. By measuring demand and consumption, consumers can identify cost centers in their electrical infrastructures as well as engineer the electrical infrastructure required to meet those demands. By measuring cleanliness, consumers are able to avoid improper function, overheating and a plethora of other consequences of unclean power.What is power demand and how do we measure it?Power demand is the amount of average electrical energy that is consumed over some period of time by a device, machine building, etc... Power Quality Analyzers, electronic instruments used to measure indicators of "power quality" , can average the electrical energy and display it in units of kilowatts. It is important that electrical systems are supplied with enough power to meet peak periods of demand.How does power consumption differ from power demand?Power consumption, similar to demand, is the sum of electrical usage over time. Power demand reflects an instantaneous view of electrical usage, whereas, power consumption sums the electrical usage over the same period of time. Power Quality Analyzers measure consumption in units of watthours (Wh) or kilowatthours (kWh). Most calculations of the cost of power are based on consumption and measured by $ per kWh.Once we know power consumption, we can calculate a useful metric called Power Factor. Power Factor is a ratio of the actual power used by an electrical system to the apparent power delivered by the utility. In almost all cases, the actual power used will be less than the apparent power delivered because of heat dissipation, frictional loss, work performed and other release of energy by the electrical system.We can use Power Factor to help us put a price tag on the amount of work the electrical system is performing, as well as help us install capacitors and other devices that store real energy to avoid being charged for excess apparent power. With a Power Quality Analyzer, you can calculate the Reactive Compensation, the amount of capacitive value required to correct a low Power Factor.Power cleanliness and the need to understand harmonicsPower cleanliness refers to identifying and freeing power of harmonics. The concept of harmonics is a bit more difficult to understand than demand and consumption. Harmonics are a result of non-linear loads that cause irregular spikes and dips in voltage and current on an electrical system.The power provided by utility companies is delivered in the form of a constant voltage AC (Alternating Current) and takes the shape of a sine wave. Ohms law says the amount of current used by an electrical device depends on the load (inductance) of that device. If the load varies over time, so will the current. Harmonics appear when varying loads (non-linear) create short pulses of current that deform the supplied, sinusoidal current waveform, creating an arbitrary waveform.You can think of an arbitrary wave as being made up of several fundamental waveforms. The easiest illustration of an arbitrary wave is to picture two people on opposite sides of a pool who create a wave towards each other with a pool float. When the waves intersect in the middle, the result is a wave that is twice as tall. The resulting wave is made up of two fundamental waves.This illustration can be used to explain that happens when harmonics occur due to non-linear loads. The current wave becomes deformed from a perfect sine wave and peaks and valleys create un-clean power. Harmonics can cause devices to overheat, electrical wire ratings to be reduced, motors to prematurely wear and circuit breakers to falsely trip.Power Quality Analyzers have the ability to identify and analyze the fundamental harmonics that make up an arbitrary current wave. Measurements such as THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) can tell you the contribution of harmonic currents to the fundamental current required. Measured as a percentage, 10% would be a reason for concern. Another measurement called Crest Factor will indicate the level of peaking caused by harmonics. The Crest Factor is a ratio of the Peak Value / RMS Value, which in a perfect sine wave would be 1.414.Choosing a Power Quality AnalyzerThere are a number of different Power Quality Analyzer manufacturers such as Fluke, AEMC, Hioki and Extech. Some analyzers are designed to measure single phase systems while others are for three phase systems. Many PQAs integrate with PCs, have enhanced data logging capabilities and can produce professional reports typically requested for power quality applications. Power Quality Analyzers range in price from $1500 to $6500 with the more expensive products offering greater analysis functionality.Whatever your application or budget it is important that power quality is a factor in the design and maintenance of your electrical system. In order to reduce costs, avoid downtime, and increase the service life of your system, power quality is a force to be reckoned with.

Fiber Optics Education The Trade Of The Future

Fiber Optics Education  The Trade Of The Future

If you dont know much about fiber optics then you are not the only one. Even though "fiber optics" has been around for almost 60 years now it has just recently become something that has an effect on the everyday person and in most of the cases that person doesnt even know it.Learning about fiber optics can be very rewarding because it is now becoming more and more popular and therefore the demand is increasing. To start with the technology of the future is deeply dependent of the fiber optics in order to transmit the huge amounts of data fast, and in high quality and at the lowest possible cost.The computerized technology today and the telephone companies are using fiber optics where ever they can to provide high quality at low cost. The old copper wires are being replace to a great extend and everyone benefit from it. But because of this huge expansion and the development that we will see in the future to come there is not enough people to help supply the demand and that is why learning about fibers optics can be beneficial to you.It doesnt matter whether you are into the technology part of thing or you are more into the service part because there will be more than enough demand in all areas of this business. The investments that are going to be made into the fiber optics technologies of the future are going to be substantial and if you have a little scientist hidden inside of you maybe now is the time for him/her to come out and invent something related to fiber optics.There are many places where you can receive fiber optics training. Most universities and educational institutions will essentially assists the student in learning about the basics of transmitting energy in the form of light versus electric energy. As a student you will learn about the energy forms and how they flow through the fiber optics cords. The next part of the training will be about the different rates of flow, and the general physics of the operation of a fiber optics cables mechanism. It might sound like a lot of difficult classes but I assure you that it is not and with this basic information you will be more than qualified to operate key pieces of technology.Paying for Fiber Optics EducationEducation is seldom free of charge and unfortunately this is no different with learning "fiber optics cables" . The costs and fees will vary depending on the course that you are planning on attending. Recently there has actually been a hefty discussion that the high costs of attending the trainings and sessions may be discouraging to some prospective students.Luckily many fiber optics cables training programs is seen by most governmental financial aid agencies as a valuable resource. The benefits for both the student and the society are often great and therefore financial aid can be given to students that apply for them. The American government, for example, considers trades like fiber optics cables training to be advantageous for success in the technological workplace of tomorrow.The government has issued specialty grants to prospective students to enable the educational process so that those in financial needs have the same possibilities as those that are not. The fact that America needs tradespersons has helped the financial aid branch of government elected to create an easier path to that education that benefits all parties involved and helps create a more well-informed workforce.

A Hobbyist Device That Could Claim A Fortune

A Hobbyist Device That Could Claim A Fortune

Metal detectors of all types may be termed as device for hobbyists either in land (parks, beaches, shores, and even in ballpark bleachers), or deep-sea waters. Seldom would hunters of all kinds set to track on land, or to ferry on sea without this device. These hobbyists or adventurers may find it very beneficial not in terms of using this device to really get expected hunt like the archeologists and the sea fearer underwater hunters and pirates, but it provides a lot of enjoyment and exercise attainable at any rate just like in athletic gymnasiums.Viewing from the immediate past, the misconception of metal detector is that of a very bulky backpack that is shoulder breaking, conceptualized in relation to the heavy adventurous perk of one who goes out for great land or sea adventures. Today, the modern innovation of such device devaluated that bulky heavy concept for "metal detector" s are sleek, lightweight rig, easy to use and handy that won't make someone tire until he spots his pot of gold.The Underwater Metal DetectorConsidered a best companion for sea fearers, sea sports enthusiasts, and fishermen, this underwater device serves best beside a batch of other equipment to any hunter at sea. A deep ocean adventure is incomplete without this piece of metal device, and it is very valuable at all cost. To a skilled scuba diver, having it is a must before his plunge into the deep waters.Manufacturers who have reached high levels of expertise in metal detector design, and perfected pulse discovery techniques over the years paved ways to cope with today's innovation of the underwater metal searcher. Both amateur and professional divers could avail alike for easy use, handling, reliability, and practicability.One of the best, if not, the best in metal detector today; the Elsec Metal Detector 2000 manufactured of tough non-corrosive construction for heavy-duty, using PVC ultimate High-Pressure moldings.High-level sensitivity competes with other metal detectors with usage of the pulse inductive detection techniques on either ferrous or non-ferrous, and iron of divalent nature, and extensive distances.With usability in approximate depth of 200 meters, it is neutrally buoyant, and controllable. To add it all in convenience, is the "no switch on and off" of power, for it automatically does so on both; upon immersion and up, from underwater. A solid-state indicator alerts awareness how long will the battery last, but this model is furnished with rechargeable batteries that will automatically let power last for 10 hours.When metal is detected, you'll be directed to three ways attraction, (1) a graduated illuminated meter, (2) a solid flashing indicator, and a (3) variable frequency bone conductor earphone.By using the best quality electronic components in the manufacture of underwater metal detector serves assurance in reliability and easy maintenance. If anything goes wrong unexpectedly, the circuit board could be out rightly replaced.

Hard Drive Data Recovery Doesn't Need To Be Hard

Hard Drive Data Recovery Doesn

Hard drive data recovery can be a difficult topic for many new computer users. No one wants to believe that their data is lost, and most people have no idea how to get it back. Fortunately, there are data recovery services available that can help you with the overwhelming task of recovering your lost data. This article is intended to help you learn more about hard drive data recovery and how you can learn more.A hard drive is a "non-volatile" storage space designed to hold data. The data is stored on a magnetic surface which is called a hard disk platter. There are many reasons why data can be lost from the hard drive, including the mechanics of the hard drive itself, and external problems. Most hard drives today have several moving parts which need to be carefully synchronized in order to maintain a constant spin rate, called RPM, inside your computer.Modern hard drives have "SMART" technology, which stands for "self-monitoring, analysis, and reporting technology." All that means is that the computer will diagnose itself and be able to solve the majority of its problems, also that it corrects the motors and fans when needed, and lets you deal with using the computer instead of trying to maintain it.In order to understand "hard drive data recovery" , it is essential to understand how data is lost from a hard drive. Let's define data loss as an unforeseen loss of data or information previously stored on your hard drive. Murphy's Law demonstrates only when it's too late that we should have been backing up our hard drive better. The best way to recover data is to never lose it in the first place, but that is a topic for a different article.Data can be lost during a power failure, because there is unsaved data in the memory which is not yet been saved to the hard drive. Data can also be lost through a disk failure which can happen for a number of reasons, usually mechanical such as a crash in the hard drive machinery itself. Software can also crash on your computer, especially if you are using Microsoft products, and could lead to a loss of data on your hard drive. Viruses or other malicious software can corrupt your data and is one of the biggest reasons for data loss. Fortunately, today's technology provides a pretty good track record on recovering data from your hard drive.The best thing to do is to look in your phone book or on the Internet for a local hard drive data recovery specialist. These are people who have been trained or have experience in recovering lost data and can be your best friends-especially in an emergency situation. There are many who specialize in hard drive data recovery and are happy to help you with your data recovery problems. The price they charge is normally a small price to pay if the alternative is losing your data forever.

Antivirus Software - A Must-have Protection For Computers

With the advent of computer viruses of all kinds, antivirus software installation in PCs has become a necessity. The antivirus software comprise of computer programs which strive to identify viruses and 'malware' (other malicious software), thwart their endeavors and eliminate them altogether. About Antivirus SoftwareThe antivirus software program may come installed on your computer or may be purchased and installed by you. There are quite a few 'invaders' against which the computer needs to be protected against. There are the viruses, worms, Trojan horses and so on. The best antivirus software available is geared to offer protection against the whole range of such known viruses and malware. The potential damage that viruses can inflict such as deletion of files, unauthorized access to personal data, and usage of the computer as a platform to carry out attack on other computers, can all be thwarted by installing at least one of the top ten antivirus software products. Techniques Used By Antivirus SoftwareThe antivirus software usually uses two alternative techniques. It scans files for viruses that match the definitions given in virus dictionaries, or it identifies infection indicated by suspicious behavior from some computer program.Some of the best antivirus software come for free. Usuaslly the best free antivirus software adopts both the techniques. However, the best antivirus software packages put special emphasis on the virus dictionary matching approach. Features To Look For In The Best Antivirus Software PackagesLook for the following features when purchasing an antivirus software product of choice:Simplicity and ease of use of the software so that even a person with little knowledge of computers or viruses can use and install it.Effectiveness in identifying viruses, worms and the like is a desirable feature of the best antivirus software products. Efficacy in cleaning out or isolating of files already infected so as to prevent further infection is another important feature that should be included in any good antivirus software. Each of the best antivirus software products assure high level of security for Windows based PCs. Depending on the uniqueness of the system in use you can choose from among the top 10 antivirus software products available from online sources.

How To Clean The Windows Registry?

The windows registry accumulates errors which slow down your computer over time. This occurs because your computer searches through the registry when retrieving information. Without the registry, your computer would not be able to run.Your computer searches through the registry for your settings and preferences every time you boot your computer up. And each time you shut it down; it will record the changes you made while your computer was on. Obviously, the bigger your registry, the more time it will take for your computer to sort through it. This is exactly the reason why you need to clean your registry and keep it down to a manageable size.Fortunately, a registry cleaner is a very easy to use tool.The benefit of running a registry cleaner periodically is that your computer will run faster. You will also have less crashing and stopping.Registry cleaning is never something you should do on your own. Even experienced computer owners will use a tool to clean their registry. Its too risky to start deleting registry records on your own. This can cause permanent damage to your computer.You will want a registry cleaner with the following features:- A cleaner that will scan your registry first for unnecessary registry records and then repair them.- A back up feature to make sure your registry is safe just in case the software deletes a registry record that was needed (this is not often the case, but it is piece of mind).- A registry cleaner that will remove the fragmented registry records.- A scheduler which will allow you to set up a schedule. That means your registry cleaner software will run every month or whenever you set it up. Once set up, you dont need to think about it again!Turn registry cleaning into habit.Fixing registry problems after they have already happened is very difficult. Therefore, its better to prevent them. Running a registry cleaner on a regular schedule will help prevent registry errors and their side-effects. Dont wait until your computer starts acting up to run a registry cleaner. You need to maintain it for the long run and take preventative actions now. Otherwise you may be stuck dealing with computer freezes, windows errors, shutdowns, and programs that do not respond.You do not need to pay an expensive technician to repair your computer. The likely culprit is an overloaded registry. Download a registry cleaner today and get your computer back in tip-top shape in minutes.

Summary

The reliability and cost of any electrical system depends greatly on the quality of the power supplied to and consumed by the system. Poor power quality may result in improper function, overheating, accelerated wear and tear, falsely tripped circuit breakers and, in some cases, hazardous conditions. With the introduction of new electronic technologies over the last several decades, the world has placed new and more complex demands for clean and reliable power.Measuring P...